1. Explain why, for Kant, when it comes to an action having moral worth or deserving moral praise, the action needs to be done “from” or “for the sake of” duty and why actions that are merely in “accordance with” or happen to align with duty are not morally praiseworthy. In your explanation, make sure to refer to the importance, for Kant, that morality has a necessary, objective, and universal ground (200 word count).
2. Explain what Varoufakis thinks is the moral responsibility of European counties regarding the issue of welcoming refugees instead of closing the borders in the midst of the Syrian crisis. In your answer, make sure to explain how he uses the categorical imperative as opposed to consequentialism (100 word count).