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Can you help with 2 separate responses in APA format, including a reference for the following discussion post? Describe the causes of Upper respiratory

Can you help with 2 separate responses in APA format, including a reference for the following discussion post?

Describe the causes of Upper respiratory infections and drug therapy. 

Upper respiratory infection (URIs)specifically targets the upper portion of the respiratory system, encompassing the sinuses and throat. Common signs of an upper respiratory infection include rhinorrhea, pharyngitis, and coughing. Viruses such as rhinoviruses, coronaviruses, adenoviruses, and influenza are the main cause of most upper respiratory infections (URIs). Streptococcus pneumoniae and Hemophilus influenzae, can occasionally be the cause of bacterial upper respiratory infections (URIs). Additionally, exposure to irritants like smoke or chemicals can make people more susceptible to these conditions. (Thomas & Bomar, 2022).

The management of upper respiratory infections typically involves rest, adequate hydration, and the use of non-prescription analgesics. In some cases, URIs typically resolve spontaneously. Alternatively, there are situations where pharmaceutical interventions are required:

  • Antibiotic therapy, specifically to combat bacterial infections. Antibiotics should not be used to treat viral upper respiratory infections (Thomas & Bomar, 2022).
  • Antivirals to treat viral infections, such as influenza. Vaccination is the most efficacious approach to avoiding influenza sickness (Thomas & Bomar, 2022).
  • Symptomatic treatment involves the use of over-the-counter (OTC) drugs such as acetaminophen or ibuprofen to alleviate fever and pain. Decongestants relieve edema and congestion. Cough suppressants are used to reduce coughing. Expectorants help to expel mucus (Thomas & Bomar, 2022). 

Discuss triggers of asthma and treatment options

Asthma is a persistent respiratory disorder that varies in severity, ranging from mild, intermittent wheezing to a severe, potentially life-threatening closure of the airways. Common asthma triggers include allergens, such as pollen or dust mites. Respiratory illnesses caused by pathogenic microorganisms, like rhinoviruses, influenza viruses, or SARS-CoV-2 are considered potential triggers. Additionally, physical exertion, fluctuations in climatic conditions, and emotional stressors influenced asthma episodes. Specific medications including aspirin, can potentially induce respiratory difficulties in individuals with severe asthma.

As per WebMD (2022), pharmacological treatments for asthma include:

  • Inhale bronchodilators such as albuterol, which is a short-acting medication, and salmeterol, which is a long-acting medication. They work by causing relaxation of the muscles around the airways.
  • Inhaled corticosteroids including fluticasone and budesonide. These drugs are the most efficacious long-term control medications for asthma. They mitigate airway irritation and preempt symptoms.
  • Leukotriene modifiers such as Montelukast.
  • Biologic medications such as Omalizumab and mepolizumab inhibit inflammation within the airways. They are prescribed for individuals with chronic asthma and are administered through injections or infusions.
  • Oral corticosteroids are used for severe asthma or asthma exacerbations. 

Discuss corticosteroids. 

Corticosteroids are a group of steroid hormones that are either naturally produced in the adrenal glands or artificially created to imitate their effects. Corticosteroids have potent anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive characteristics (Hodgens & Sharman, 2023).  They are classified into two categories glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. Glucocorticoids exert their effects on the body’s metabolism, immunological response, and inflammatory processes. Mineralocorticoids mainly control the balance of electrolytes and fluids in the body, specifically sodium and potassium. Aldosterone is the predominant mineralocorticoid synthesized endogenously by the adrenal glands (Hodgens & Sharman, 2023).

These substances can be administered orally, inhaled, applied topically, or injected. They are prescribed to treat asthma, allergies, arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis (MS), and skin disorders. The potential negative consequences of using this medication include an increase in body weight, a decrease in bone density (osteoporosis), elevated blood sugar levels, a higher susceptibility to infections, and alterations in mood (Hodgens & Sharman, 2023). When considering ceasing the use of corticosteroids is crucial to gradually reduce the dosage under the supervision of a physician. Sudden discontinuation can result in adrenal insufficiency, a condition characterized by insufficient production of endogenous corticosteroids, causing symptoms such as weariness, weakness, and joint pain. 

Describe chronic bronchitis and treatment options.

Chronic bronchitis is characterized by persistent inflammation of the bronchial tubes and is frequently linked to long-term lung disorders such as emphysema, asthma, cystic fibrosis, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This condition is caused by factors including air pollution, smoking, inhalation of chemicals, and advancing age. The duration of coughing related to chronic bronchitis can extend for several months (Widysanto & Mathew, 2022). The clinical symptoms of bronchitis include a cough with clear, white, or yellowish sputum, difficulty breathing, tiredness, chest discomfort, and fever.

Possible courses of treatment for chronic bronchitis mentioned by Widysanto & Mathew, (2022), include: 

  • Oxygen therapy is crucial for preventing hypoxemia during periods of respiratory distress in patients with bronchitis.
  • Inhaled bronchodilators (albuterol) aid in the reduction of airway inflammation.
  • Inhaled corticosteroids (fluticasone and budesonide) mitigate airway inflammation and reduce mucus secretion. They can be used in combination with a bronchodilator.
  • Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections that might occur in the lungs because of chronic bronchitis.
  • Pursed-lip breathing techniques help alleviate dyspnea in individuals with bronchitis.

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