## Question 4 (5 points)

Populate a new 2×2 table with the information as follows. A new test to evaluate Campylobacteriosis was developed by Gilead Pharmaceuticals. A total of 100 people were tested for the disease. Of the 100 people total test 25 people were positive. When the 25 specimens were cultured it was found that 15 of the 25 were truly positive. The negative tests were cultured and evaluated as well. 25 of the tests that came up negative were positive. Calculate the sensitivity and specificity.You have just finished administering a food/drink questionnaire to ill and non-ill participants in a Minnesota summer picnic party. The ill individuals developed moderate to severe diarrhea 16 to 46 hours after the picnic. Six persons experienced vomiting. The following data were collected:

## Question 5 (5 points)

You are interested in controlling cigarette smoking among women aged 15-24. Describe one primary prevention approach and one secondary prevention approach you would use. Convey your understanding of the difference between primary and secondary approaches in the context of your answer.

Question 1

Calculate the Odds ratio for illness for consuming Hot Dogs.

## Question 2 (5 points)

You have just finished administering a food/drink questionnaire to ill and non-ill participants in a Minnesota summer picnic party. The ill individuals developed moderate to severe diarrhea 16 to 46 hours after the picnic. Six persons experienced vomiting. The following data were collected:

Calculate the Odds ratio for illness for consuming Hamburgers. Interpret the results.

## Question 3 (5 points)

Different measures of disease are useful to evaluate and assess public health programs and needs in different situations. For each of the following questions, (a) state which measure would best support your goal and (b) explain why you chose that measure. To demonstrate the amount of children’s exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke.

**Expert Solution Preview**

Introduction:

In this assignment, we will be addressing various questions related to medical topics. These questions involve concepts such as data analysis, prevention approaches, and measures of disease. Each question will be answered separately, providing detailed explanations and calculations where applicable.

Answer to Question 1:

To calculate the Odds ratio for illness associated with consuming Hot Dogs, we need the following information:

– Number of ill participants who consumed Hot Dogs (exposed group): n1

– Number of ill participants who did not consume Hot Dogs (non-exposed group): n2

– Number of non-ill participants who consumed Hot Dogs: n3

– Number of non-ill participants who did not consume Hot Dogs: n4

The formula to calculate the Odds ratio is:

Odds ratio = (n1/n2) / (n3/n4)

Answer to Question 2:

To calculate the Odds ratio for illness associated with consuming Hamburgers, we need the following information:

– Number of ill participants who consumed Hamburgers (exposed group): n1

– Number of ill participants who did not consume Hamburgers (non-exposed group): n2

– Number of non-ill participants who consumed Hamburgers: n3

– Number of non-ill participants who did not consume Hamburgers: n4

The formula to calculate the Odds ratio is:

Odds ratio = (n1/n2) / (n3/n4)

Interpretation of the results would involve comparing the Odds ratio to 1. If the Odds ratio is greater than 1, it indicates a positive association between consuming Hamburgers and illness. Conversely, an Odds ratio less than 1 suggests a negative association. The magnitude of the Odds ratio can also provide insights into the strength of the association.

Answer to Question 3:

Different measures of disease can be utilized depending on the goal of evaluating children’s exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke. Two commonly used measures are prevalence and incidence.

(a) In this scenario, the measure that would best support the goal of demonstrating the amount of children’s exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke is prevalence. Prevalence is the proportion of individuals in a population who have a specific condition (exposure) at a particular point in time. It provides an estimate of the burden of the condition in the population.

(b) Prevalence is the preferred measure in this case because it focuses on the overall presence of exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke among children. By determining the prevalence, we can understand the extent and magnitude of the problem. This information is crucial for public health programs to develop appropriate interventions and target resources effectively.

Answer to Question 4:

To calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the new test to evaluate Campylobacteriosis developed by Gilead Pharmaceuticals, we need the following information:

– True positive (TP): Number of individuals who were positive on the test and actually had the disease (15).

– False negative (FN): Number of individuals who were negative on the test but actually had the disease (10).

– False positive (FP): Number of individuals who were positive on the test but did not have the disease (25).

– True negative (TN): Number of individuals who were negative on the test and did not have the disease (50).

Sensitivity = TP / (TP + FN) = 15 / (15 + 10)

Specificity = TN / (TN + FP) = 50 / (50 + 25)

Calculating the values will provide the sensitivity and specificity of the new test for Campylobacteriosis.

Answer to Question 5:

For controlling cigarette smoking among women aged 15-24, we can employ both primary and secondary prevention approaches.

Primary prevention approach: Implementing comprehensive tobacco control policies and regulations at the national level would be a primary prevention approach. This involves measures such as increasing the legal age for purchasing cigarettes, banning tobacco advertising, implementing smoke-free environments, and providing education and awareness programs about the harmful effects of smoking. The goal is to prevent women from initiating smoking in the first place.

Secondary prevention approach: Providing targeted smoking cessation programs and interventions specifically for women aged 15-24 would be a secondary prevention approach. This approach focuses on early identification of smokers and providing effective resources for quitting smoking. It includes strategies such as counseling, pharmacological interventions, support groups, and tailored interventions based on individual needs. The goal is to reduce smoking prevalence and help those already smoking to quit.

The main difference between primary and secondary prevention approaches lies in their timing and target population. Primary prevention aims to prevent the occurrence of a condition (smoking initiation) in the entire population or specific population groups, while secondary prevention focuses on early detection and intervention to reduce the impact of the condition (smoking) among those already affected.