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DQ1 1) L.D 1 postsRe: Topic 5 DQ 1 Clean


1)     L.D         
1 postsRe: Topic 5 DQ 1

Clean water is necessary for daily routine tasks like showering, brushing teeth, hand washing, cooking, and cleaning. It is easy for people who do have access to clean water to take it for granted. According to The World Health Organization, an approximate 700 million people throughout the world do not have access to clean water (DiPrete, 2018). That astonishing number means that one out of every three people in the world does not have access to safe, hygienic toilet facility; that is equal to eight times the population of the United States (DiPrete, 2018). National government multinational organizations, and non-governmental organizations have all began to work to address the problem, there is still a lot of effort and financing that is required to make sure clean water and correct sanitation is possible for every person worldwide (DePrete, 2018). There are four components for accessible clean and safe water: water resources, water quality, sanitation and hygiene, and water quality. When there is no water infrastructure put in place, citizens must rely on whatever sources of water are available. Poor water quality means that water that appears to be clean, can actually contain pathogens and other components that are harmful to human health (DiPrete, 2018). Poor sanitized water can contain toxic metals, chemicals, and pesticides, this can cause illnesses that accumulates over a long period of time. The availability of water is a major concern in some communities, citizens must travel long distances to collect water that is safe to use for drinking, cooking, and other household needs (DiPrete, 2018).


DiPrete, L. (2018). Foundations in global health practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781118505564. URL:https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/wiley-

2)   M.G       
1 postsRe: Topic 5 DQ 1

The target date for all sustainable goals to be achieved globally is now less than 10 years. These goals apply to every country, whether they are rich or poor, and are expecting to be pushed forward with a deadline goal of 2030 (Nilsson et al., 2016). All 17 sustainable goals must work together. Prioritizing one can hinder others. However, meeting the goals of one can get another goal one step closer to success. Low-income countries are suffering from infectious disease, hunger, malnutrition, poverty, and unclean water and sanitation, to name a few. According to The World Health Organization, an approximate 700 million people throughout the world do not have access to clean water (DiPrete, 2018). Sustainable goal 6 is to secure availability and sustain management of water and sanitation for all. The four components of effective water, sanitation, and hygiene systems are accessibility of safe and clean water, availability of sufficient water quantity, protection of water resources, and access to adequate hygiene and sanitation (DiPrete, 2018). Humans have become the most influential species, causing global warming, changes to land, environment, water, organisms, and the atmosphere (Pavid, 2021).

Gender disparities can be a challenge in water and sanitation in some countries. Women are primarily the ones to retrieve water, carrying water for long periods of time in long distances (DiPrete, 2018). This can cause several physical and health issues in women. Furthermore, insufficient access to hygiene resources for women during menstruation, can cause psychosocial distress, as women are susceptible to sexual harassment and assault (DiPrete, 2018). Water and sanitation infrastructure can cause limited supplies of water and can be costly. Land change such as deforestation, can cause migration between people and animals, bringing them closer together, with a potential threat to the development of zoonotic disease. Climate change has an impact on water, sanitation, and hygiene. With extreme weather, such as droughts, heavy rainfall, and flooding, and natural disasters, causing damages to water infrastructure and contamination of fresh water. Vector-borne and water-borne diseases can develop, making people susceptible to disease.

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) are mostly zoonotic diseases related to WASH elements. These diseases not only affect humans, but animals too. Improper handling and slaughtering of animals can have an influence on the effectiveness of WASH measures in disease control (Matilla, et al., 2018). Poor sanitation with animals can lead to risk of infection due to direct human contact with infected animals. Vector-borne diseases can infect animals, resulting in disease transmission to humans.

The reduction of animal burden of disease has direct effects on humans and the prevalence of disease and vice versa (Matilla, et al., 2018). The importance of sustainable goals and programs to support them will help aid in improving the heath and well-being in other countries.

                                                                                               Cite References

DiPrete, L. (2018). Foundations in global health practice. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. ISBN-13: 9781118505564. url:https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/wiley-

Matilla, F., Velleman, Y., Harrison, W., & Nevel, M. (2018). Animal influence on water, sanitation and hygiene measures for zoonosis control at the household level: A systematic literature review. PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 12(7), e0006619. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0006619

Nilsson, M., Griggs, D. & Visbeck, M. Policy: Map the interactions between sustainable development goals. Nature 534, 320–322 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/534320a

Pavid, K. (2021). What is the Anthropocene? Natural History Museum. https://www.nhm.ac.uk/discover/what-is-the-anthropocene.html.

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4)  M.G     
1 postsRe: Topic 5 DQ 2

Different faces of a single threat: Global health must play a bigger role in planetary health

The current global pandemic has led to the development of prevention measures to future zoonotic diseases. Issues such as the destruction of forests and wildlife trade increase the chance of disease transmission from animals to humans. One Health looks at the intersection of animal, plant and human life and how humans affect the environment. Global health security currently only focuses on containing a disease outbreak, but the need for preventing them needs to be a primary focus. Policymakers need to look into re-allocating funds towards disease specific programs that benefit environmental equity and sustainability. Non-profit organizations like Health in Harmony, work with environmental scientists, public health specialists, and ecologists, to conserve animal habitats and improve human health. Global health non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are important members of a One Health solution because they can collaborate with other organizations and governments to support disease surveillance systems. 


5)    L.D               Re: Topic 5 DQ 2

A High-Stakes World Health Assembly, Previewed 

This article is from May 2021, and it is a preview of the World Health Assembly that is conducted by health experts and global health leaders, that is done virtually because of Covid-19. The article talks about the importance of having solutions to future health related events or future pandemics, before it becomes critical. 

Pandemic Treaty-

Global health experts explain the importance of having a worldwide system for avoiding or treating future pandemics. There are systems in place to try and resolve climate crisis, mass destruction, and also institutions to avoid economic disasters, but nothing to prevent pandemics (Simpson, 2021). They also bring up the point that countries need to be collectively honest and report outbreaks to the global health community without getting penalized, while countries who hide and delay important information regarding health, should sufferauthoritative approval for putting their citizens at risk (Simpson, 2021). 

Vaccine Equity-

Current global health experts mention the necessity for many developing counties to receive vaccine supplies, since wealthy countries are able to afford them and provide them to a larger population. “We are all suffering from this pandemic, and no one is safe until we are all safe” (Simpson, 2021). 

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