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http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sickaroundtheworld/view/main.html Health Care System Structure [WLOs: 1, 2] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 5] Prior to beginning work on this discussion, please read Chapt Nursing Assignment Help

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sickaroundtheworld/view/main.html

Health Care System Structure [WLOs: 1, 2] [CLOs: 1, 2, 3, 5]

Prior to beginning work on this discussion, please read Chapter 13 of the course textbook and view the Sick Around the WorldLinks to an external site. In this week’s learning materials, you learned about the history, structure, and ultimate function of the U.S. health care system and how it compares with other developed nations.

In your discussion,

  • Describe three major changes that have taken place in the development of the U.S. health care system.
  • Describe the education and responsibility differences between an LPN, a CNA, and an RN.
  • Explain the differences in education and training between a primary care physician (PCP) and a cardiologist.
  • Describe the role public health professionals play in the U.S. health care system and its delivery.
  • Describe three major problems facing the U.S. health care system when compared to other developed nations.
    • Hypothesize the role public health should play in addressing these three major problems.
  • Identify three elements of the Affordable Care Act that pertain to public health.

Expert Solution Preview

Introduction:
The U.S. health care system has undergone significant changes over the years, reflecting the evolving needs and demands of its population. Understanding these changes is crucial for medical college students as they embark on their careers in the healthcare field. In this response, we will explore three major changes in the development of the U.S. health care system, describe the education and responsibility differences between an LPN, a CNA, and an RN, explain the differences in education and training between a primary care physician (PCP) and a cardiologist, describe the role of public health professionals in the U.S. health care system, identify three major problems facing the U.S. health care system when compared to other developed nations, hypothesize the role public health should play in addressing these problems, and finally, identify three elements of the Affordable Care Act that pertain to public health.

Answer:
1. Three major changes in the development of the U.S. health care system are:
a) Shift towards managed care: The U.S. health care system has transitioned from a fee-for-service model to a managed care approach. This change aimed to control rising costs and improve the coordination and quality of care.
b) Implementation of electronic health records (EHRs): The adoption of EHRs has revolutionized healthcare by enabling easy access and exchange of patient information among healthcare providers. It enhances patient safety, efficiency, and continuity of care.
c) Expansion of health insurance coverage: With the passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), access to health insurance has significantly expanded in the U.S. This change aimed to reduce the number of uninsured individuals and improve overall population health outcomes.

2. LPN (Licensed Practical Nurse), CNA (Certified Nursing Assistant), and RN (Registered Nurse) differ in terms of education and responsibilities.
a) LPN: LPNs typically complete a one-year nursing program and pass a licensure exam. They provide basic nursing care, administer medication, and monitor patient vital signs under the supervision of RNs or physicians.
b) CNA: CNAs complete a state-approved training program that typically lasts a few months. They assist with daily activities like bathing, dressing, and feeding patients, as well as monitoring vital signs and reporting changes to the nursing staff.
c) RN: RNs have completed an associate or bachelor’s degree in nursing and passed the NCLEX-RN exam. They provide direct patient care, administer medication, perform assessments, develop care plans, and coordinate patient care.

3. Primary care physicians (PCPs) and cardiologists differ in terms of education and training.
a) PCP: PCPs, such as family physicians, internists, or pediatricians, have completed medical school and a residency program in general practice. They provide comprehensive health care, including preventive services, routine check-ups, and management of common medical conditions.
b) Cardiologist: Cardiologists are specialized physicians who have completed medical school, a residency program in internal medicine, and additional fellowship training in cardiology. They focus on diagnosing and treating cardiovascular diseases and conditions.

4. Public health professionals play a vital role in the U.S. health care system. They focus on promoting and protecting the health of communities through population-level interventions.
a) They conduct disease surveillance and outbreak investigations to prevent the spread of infectious diseases.
b) They develop and implement public health policies aimed at improving health outcomes and reducing health disparities.
c) They educate the public about health promotion, disease prevention, and healthy lifestyle choices.
d) They collaborate with healthcare providers and community organizations to address public health challenges and ensure access to care for underserved populations.

5. Three major problems facing the U.S. health care system when compared to other developed nations include:
a) High healthcare costs: The U.S. has significantly higher healthcare costs compared to other developed nations, which can lead to financial burden and limited access to care for many individuals.
b) Health disparities: Inequality in health outcomes among different socioeconomic groups is more pronounced in the U.S. compared to other developed nations. This disparity affects access to care, health status, and health equity.
c) Fragmented healthcare delivery: The U.S. healthcare system is fragmented, with limited care coordination and communication across different providers, resulting in inefficiencies and suboptimal patient outcomes.

Hypothesis: Public health should play a crucial role in addressing these problems by advocating for policies that promote cost-effective care, reducing health disparities through targeted interventions, and fostering collaboration and integration within the healthcare system to enhance continuity and quality of care.

6. Three elements of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) that pertain to public health are:
a) Medicaid expansion: The ACA expanded Medicaid eligibility, providing coverage to more low-income individuals and families. This expansion aimed to improve access to essential healthcare services and reduce health disparities.
b) Prevention and Public Health Fund: The ACA established a fund to support public health initiatives, including preventive services, community health programs, and research aimed at improving population health outcomes.
c) Health Insurance Marketplace: The ACA created state-based Health Insurance Marketplaces, providing individuals and small businesses access to affordable health insurance options. This marketplace includes public health-related provisions, such as essential health benefits and preventive services coverage.

In conclusion, understanding the history, structure, and function of the U.S. health care system is essential for medical college students. It allows them to comprehend the challenges and opportunities that exist within the healthcare field. By exploring the changes in the U.S. health care system, the differences in education and responsibilities between various healthcare professionals, the role of public health professionals, the major problems facing the U.S. system compared to other developed nations, and the impact of the Affordable Care Act on public health, students can develop a comprehensive understanding of the healthcare landscape they will navigate as future healthcare providers.

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